This is an overview of the previous lessons listing the essential information in an outline format for easier reference. Not all of the details from the previous lessons/posts on the Islamic Worldview are posted in this list, and I have included a few new citations and Muslim arguments, so that this outline isn’t only review for those who have read the previous posts on the Islamic Worldview. I have included some important responses to the listed Muslims views in parenthesis directly after the position stated and in the footnotes. Other responses can be found in the previous lessons which I didn’t repeat here in order to make this a brief overview.
It should be observed that it is inconsistent with both the Christian and Islamic Worldview to use double standards when addressing someone’s presuppositions (theological assumptions). The list of presuppositions given provides a list of key Islamic presuppositions, so that Christians can directly respond to them in evangelism and be aware of them when we hear Islamic apologetic arguments against the Christian Worldview.
Proverbs 20:10, “Differing weights and differing measures, Both of them are abominable to the LORD” (NASB).
Surah 17:35, “And give full measure when you measure, and weigh with an even balance. That is the best [way] and best in result”.
*All Quranic citations are from the Saheeh International Version
I. The Doctrine of God in the Islamic Worldview:
- Tawhid-the oneness of God
- Categories of Tawhid: Tawhid-ar-Rubbubiyah (God is one & unique in his Lordship), Tawhid– al-Asma’ waṣ-ṣifat (God is one & unique in his name & attributes), and Tawhid al-‘Ibadah/Tawheed al-Uluhiyah (God is one & unique in his right to be worshipped)
- Man is born believing in Tawhid i.e. born a Muslim (a state of fitrah via God’s covenant w/Adam)
- Violation of Tawhid in any of the 3 categories is called shirk (associating partners with God, assumes Unitarian monotheism) resulting in polytheism & eternal damnation
II. The Doctrine of Christ in the Islamic Worldview:
- Christ is considered a prophet sent to the Jews with the revelation of the Gospel (Injeel)
- The virgin birth of Christ is affirmed in Islam (although he did additionally prophesy from the cradle, Surah 19:27-33)
- While the Ascension of Christ is affirmed by the Qur’an his crucifixion is explicitly denied, Surah 4:157, “And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain”.
- Muslim apologists will use heretical sects such as the Gnostic Ebionites to argue that Christians only believe in the humanity of Christ. Here is the argument as presented in the Muslim apologetic book Izhar-Ul-Haq (The Standard of Truth), “The Ebionites, a Christian sect of the first century, had the belief that Jesus was only a human being, born of his parents Joseph and Mary, like other human beings” (This is a double standard borrowing from other worldviews since the Ebionites were Gnostics they viewed all matter as evil, but that would also mean that Muhammad was evil. Also since the Ebionites denied the virgin birth of Jesus, they would also be denying the Qur’an’s affirmation of the virgin birth of Jesus).
- The concept of Sonship is explicitly denied by the Qur’an; Surah Al-‘Ikhlas (112:1-4), “Say, “He is Allah, [who is] One, Allah, the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent”.
- The most common Muslim argument against the Deity of Christ stated by Ahmed Deedat and his followers is, “If Jesus was God, then why did he never say, “I am God, worship me!”
III. Doctrine of the Trinity & the Incarnation in the Islamic Worldview:
- The Qur’an assumes the Trinity consists of Allah (God the Father), ’Isa (Jesus), and Mary (Surah 4:171-2)
- The Doctrine of the Trinity is assumed to be teaching Tritheism (since in Islam God is Unitarian), and it is viewed as illogical (This is based on the assumption that our creaturely understanding of God is equal to God’s understanding of Himself).
- The common argument that the Trinity is not taught in the Bible because the word Trinity isn’t used is a contradiction since Tawheed (Oneness of God) is affirmed by the Qur’an, although the word itself occurs in the Hadeeth (i.e. Saheeh Al-Bukhari), not the Qur’an
- Within the Creator-Creature Distinction, man is viewed as imperfect, so the Incarnation is viewed as a contradiction (there is no glorified state of man), “According to the Qur’an, human beings are a blending of clay (which is the source of their weakness) and the soul. As a result, human beings have always been imperfect” .
- Muslims typically view the Incarnation of Christ as Jesus ceasing to be God and becoming human, rather than the hypostatic union which affirms Christ is both fully God and fully man
- Christ being fully God and fully man is viewed as a contradiction because the attributes of God and man are viewed as opposing one another i.e. omniscience vs. limited knowledge [For example Mark 13:32 is a common verse used by Muslim Apologists, “But of that day or hour no one knows, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone” (NASB)].
- Paul is viewed as an innovator & false teacher who taught the doctrine of the Trinity and Deity of Christ contradicting the teachings of Jesus according to Islam, “Christians, influenced by the teachings of Saul from Tarsus (later called Paul), deified Prophet Jesus and directed their prayer to him and his mother”.
IV. The Qur’an & The Bible in the Islamic Worldview:
- The Qur’an claims only a single Divine author, it was dictated to Muhammad, so his (Muhammad’s) role was passive in the process of the Qur’an being revealed
- The Qur’an was revealed in Arabic, but has eternally existed in the Arabic language, thus preceding Muhammad, so to truly read & understand the Qur’an (from a Muslim perspective) you need to read it in Arabic
- Modern Muslim Apologists assume the Old and New Testament have been corrupted (although this was not the majority position prior to Izhar-Ul-Haq in the 20th century)
- The Qur’an is assumed to be in continuity with previous revelation Old & New Testament (Tawrah & Injeel). The Qur’an commands the People of the Book (Ahl-al-Kitab) to judge the Qur’an by previous revelation (Surah 5:42-48, 65-68).
- The Old and New Testament teaches prophecies about Muhammad according to Islam, so they cannot be viewed as completely corrupt only partially corrupt ( 18:15-19, John 14:16-17,16:7-14, Song of Solomon 5:16)
Surah 5:42-48, “But how is it that they come to you for judgment while they have the Torah, in which is the judgment of Allah ? Then they turn away, [even] after that; but those are not [in fact] believers.  Indeed, We sent down the Torah, in which was guidance and light. The prophets who submitted [to Allah ] judged by it for the Jews, as did the rabbis and scholars by that with which they were entrusted of the Scripture of Allah , and they were witnesses thereto. So do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not exchange My verses for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the disbelievers. And We ordained for them therein a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is legal retribution. But whoever gives [up his right as] charity, it is an expiation for him. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the wrongdoers.  And We sent, following in their footsteps, Jesus, the son of Mary, confirming that which came before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Gospel, in which was guidance and light and confirming that which preceded it of the Torah as guidance and instruction for the righteous.  And let the People of the Gospel judge by what Allah has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed – then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient”.
Surah 5: 65-68, “And if only the People of the Scripture had believed and feared Allah , We would have removed from them their misdeeds and admitted them to Gardens of Pleasure.  And if only they upheld [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have consumed [provision] from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them are a moderate community, but many of them – evil is that which they do.  O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message. And Allah will protect you from the people. Indeed, Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.  Say, “O People of the Scripture, you are [standing] on nothing until you uphold [the law of] the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase many of them in transgression and disbelief. So do not grieve over the disbelieving people”.
 Rahmatullah Kairanvi, Maulana, Izhar-Ul-Haq (Truth Revealed): Proof of the Divine Origin of the Qur’an and the Authenticity of the Hadiths Part 3 (Jedda, Saudi Arabia; World of Knowledge for Publishing & Distribution, 1992), 100.
 Hamza Mustafa Njozi, The Sources of the Qur’an: A Critical Review of the Authorship Theories (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Islamic Publishing House, 2005), 78
 Dr. Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, The Fundamentals of Tawhid (Islamic Monotheism), (International Islamic Publishing house: Saudi Arabia, 2005), 38; this view of Paul is not held by some of the earliest Muslim Commentators such as Ibn Kathir commenting on Surah 36:13-16, where three messengers are sent to a city, and Ibn Kathir identifies the third messenger as Paul (Bulus in Arabic), “Ibn Kathir records a tradition (8:178-179; Al Suyuti does also), which he himself does not follow, that “The names of the first two Messengers were Sham’un and Yuhanna, and the name of the third was Bulus, and the city was Antioch…Qatad bin Di’amah claimed that they were messengers of the Messiah, peace be upon him, sent to the people of Antioch” cited by James White in What Every Christian Needs to Know about the Qur’an, 190. Also if Paul was considered a false teacher and promoter of shirk, then the Qur’an should have explicitly condemned him as a false teacher.