Henry Ainsworth’s Biblical Theology of the Passover and Lord’s Supper from Exodus 12


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I’ve been reading through Henry Ainsworth’s Annotations on the Pentateuch to accompany my daily Hebrew translation from the Pentateuch and comparison with Targum Onkelos, an ancient Aramaic Jewish translation of the Pentatuech.  Ainsworth’s commentary is far beyond its time as he employs a pre-enlighetnment hermeneutic, letting scripture interpret scripture, he traces biblical-theological themes through the Old Testament and into the New Testament, both the OT use of OT and the NT use of the OT, and he was a master of biblical languages since he compares the Hebrew text with the Greek Septuagint (LXX) along with the Aramaic Targums (Jewish paraphrases of the Old testament), which few modern commentators on the Pentateuch are able to do.  Here are some quotations giving a biblical theology of the Lord’s Supper and Passover.  When I have more time (primarily after I graduate from my undergraduate studies this May) I’ll try to post more quotes from Ainsworth’s exegetical and biblical-theological comments on the Pentateuch [these are only sections of quotes from Ainsworth’s commentary for each verse, not the entire section for each verse, to see the high points of his biblical theology and hermeneutics of Exodus 12 by juxtaposing them]:

“[Ainsworth’s comments on Exodus 12:1] Because this release of Israel was a figure of the church’s redemption by Christ, who reneweth the world, 1 Cor. 5:7,8; 2 Cor. 5:17; and who was to suffer death also in this month, John 18:28; therefore God made it the head and first of the year; that by it the church might be taught to expect ‘the acceptable year of the Lord,’ which Christ preached, Luke 4:19″.  Henry Ainsworth, Annotations on the Pentateuch, Soli Deo Gloria edition, Vol. I: 290

“[Ainsworth’s comments on Exodus 12:8] These observations (those that Ainsworth lists in his comments on Exodus 12:8) of the Jews while their commonwealth stood, and to this day, may give light to some particulars in the passover that Christ kept; as why they lay down, one ‘leaning’ on another’s ‘bosom,’ John 13:23 (a sign of rest and security,) and stood not, as at the first passover, neither sat on high, as we use.  Why Christ rose from supper, and washed, and sat down again, John 13:4,5,12.   Why he blessed, or gave thanks, for the bread apart, and for the cup (or wine) apart, Mark 14:22, 23; and why it is said, he took the cup after supper, Luke 22:20; also concerning the hymn which they sung at the end, Mat. 26:30; and why Paul calleth it the ‘showing forth’ of the Lord’s death, 1 Cor. 11:26, as the Jews usually called their passover, Haggadah, that is, a Showing, or a Declaration.  But specially we may observe, how the bread, which was of old a remembrance of their deliverance out of Egypt, was sanctified by the Son of God, to be a remembrance of his death, and of our redemption thereby from Satan, 1 Cor. 11:24-26, for which we have much more cause to praise, honour, and magnify the Lord, than the Hebrews had for their temporary salvation”. Ibid, Vol. I:292

“[Ainsworth’s comments on Exodus 12:11] And as the festival time, so the lamb then killed is called the Passover, Luke 2:41; and 22:7; and the Lamb of God Christ is so named also, 1 Cor. 5:7; because for his sake God passeth over us, and destroyeth us no with the world, John 3:3,16,18.  Seven famous passovers are recorded in scripture to have been kept.  The first, this which Israel kept in Egypt.  The second, that which they kept in the wilderness, Num. 9.  The third, which Joshua kept with Israel when he had newly brought them into Canaan, Josh. 5:10.  The fourth, in the reformation of Israel by king Hezekiah, 2 Chron. 30.  The fifth, under king Josiah, 2 Chron. 35.  The sixth, by Israel returned out of the captivity of Babylon, Ezra 6:19.  The seventh, that which Jesus our Saviour desired so earnestly, and did eat with his disciples before he sufferred, Luke 22:15.  At which time that legal passover had an end, and our Lord’s Supper came in its place.  The memorial of Christ, our Passover, sacrificed for us.” Ibid, Vol. I: 294

“[Ainsworth’s comments on Exodus 12:22]  This herb (hyssop) was used to sprinkle with in other services and purifications.  See Exod. 24:6,8; Lev. 14:4; Num. 19:6,18; and signified the instrument whereby the blood of Christ is sprinkled upon, and applied unto our hearts, which is the preaching of faith; for faith purifieth the heart of sinners, Acts 15:9; and it cometh by the preaching of the Word, Rom. 10:14-17; which ministereth unto us the Spirit, Gal. 3:2; and we are elect through sanctification of the Spirit, ‘unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ,’ 1 Pet. 1:2; which purgeth our consciences ‘from dead works, to serve the living God,’ Heb. 9:14.  See Ps. 51:9″. Ibid, Vol. I: 297

“[Ainsworth’s comments on Exodus 12:46]  A BONE,] To foreshadow that not a bone of Christ our Passover should be broken; as was fulfilled, John 19:33,36; which signified his victory and deliverance out of affliction and death, (from which he rose the third day;) as Ps. 34:20,21; the Lord ‘keepeth all his bones, not one of them is broken.’ And, in hope of the resurrection, Joseph gave charge of his bones, and they were carried into Canaan, Heb. 11:22; Exod. 13:19″. Ibid, Vol. I:301

You can get an online copy of Anisworth’s commentary in PDF and google books for free; the Soli Deo Gloria edition is out of print and expensive:


Tawhid, Shirk, and a Presuppositional Approach for witnessing to Muslims


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This is a lesson that I gave based on a paper that I wrote for my World Religions class particularly focusing on the doctrine of Tawhid, the oneness of God, and shirk, the violation of Tawhid by associating partners with Allah, in Islam.

I quoted a few additional portions from James White’s book, What Every Christian Needs to Know about the Quran, for a useful comparison of the view of the final judgment in the Quran (Chapter 7 in James White’s book) with the Bible to contrast the Quran’s view of God with the Bible’s view of God as Just, Holy, and Merciful:

Presuppositional Apologetics You-Tube Playlist


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This is a playlist from my you-tube channel from different apologists such as James White, Greg Bahnsen, and Sye Ten Bruggencate giving a foundation for a Biblical apologetic for evangelism, exposing the false presuppositions of an unbeliever’s worldview, confronting them with their dependence upon the God they know exists to even be able to account for basic everyday life i.e. logic, uniformity of nature, morality, human dignity.  I like Gene Cook Jr’s acronym for the Transcendental Argument, MUCH = M for Morality, U for Uniformity of Nature, C for concepts and abstract universals, H for Human Dignity:


Apologetic Training Material for Witnessing to Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses


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This is a playlist from my you-tube channel containing lectures discussing Mormon and Jehovah’s Witness beliefs along with some debates that Dr. James White has done with Mormons and Jehovah’s Witnesses to help equip Christians to witness to Jehovah’s Witnesses and Mormons:


Dr. Greg Bahnsen’s Opening Statement in his debate with Edward Tabash


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Dr. Bahnsen gives an opening statement in this debate on the existence of God with lawyer Edward Tabash demonstrating the inability of the atheistic worldview to account for the basic conditions of intelligibility i.e. logic, uniformity of nature, morality, and human dignity, which can only be accounted for within a Christian worldview:


Federalismo 1689 comparado con Federalismo Westminster


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Una comparación entre la teleología del pacto de la confesión de fe de Westminster y la confesión bautista de fe de 1689:




Jeremey Walker, Urgency to reach the lost


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“We cannot pretend that we have understood divine truth unless we are living it. We cannot pretend that we know and believe the truth about men, souls, heaven, hell, and salvation unless it is making a difference in the way we think, feel, pray, speak, and act. A vigorous, practical concern for the lost, growing out of a desire for God’s glory in man’s salvation, is an eminently Christlike thing and a hallmark of healthy Christianity.” The Brokenhearted evangelist, Kindle version p. 56

“While I accept that there can be an unbalanced and crippling expectation and even unbiblical obsession with some aspects of evangelism and “mission” (as the portentous modern singular would have it), there is an opposite and perhaps greater danger in our day that believers and churches enjoying possession of a great deposit of truth nevertheless do not know it. If they did, they would be doing something. It is very easy to be up in arms, for example, about current assaults on what can so calmly be described as the doctrine of hell. “Of course there is a hell!” we protest, offended and disturbed that someone could deny what is so plainly written in the Word of God. Is there a hell? What difference has it made? What have we done differently because there is a hell? Is its reality driving our thoughts, words, and deeds? Many of us who have entered the kingdom have come perilously close to the flames of the pit. We have felt its fire, and yet we have, perhaps, forgotten that from which we have been delivered. The urgency with which we fled to Christ ourselves has perhaps been replaced with a casual awareness of spiritual reality that never energizes us to do anything for those who are themselves in danger of eternal punishment. The same could be said of heaven, of Christ’s atonement for sinners, of God’s grace and mercy, of the freeness of the gospel, of the excellence of salvation. “Yes…yes…yes,” the monotonous ticking off of doctrines received continues. But what difference does it make to you and me?” ibid p. 56-72

[John Bunyan’s Burden for the lost] “I preached what I felt, what I smartingly [acutely, deeply] did feel. Indeed, I have been to them as one sent to them from the dead; I went myself in chains to preach to them in chains, and carried that fire in my own conscience that I persuaded them to beware of”?[2]” ibid p. 109

A.W. Pink Tract: Is Christ Your Lord?


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A useful tract to pass out to nominal christians when doing evangelism which clearly explains the Lordship of Christ in salvation and in the life of a genuine believer.  Print it out in booklet form and just fold in half to make the tract with a single sheet of paper.

A.W. Pink Tract, Is Christ your Lord

Richard A. Muller on archetypal and ectypal theology


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Originally posted on Theologia est doctrina Deo vivendi per Christum:


As we approach theology, how do we explain and account for the vast and immeasurable distance between God and man? Can we know what God knows? Can we know anything at all? Is God too hidden to be known? Can we climb into God’s mind (so to speak) and see what’s going on? Here is where the differentiation between archetypal theology (the perfect knowledge God has of himself) and ectypal theology (the revealed but limited – though sufficient – knowledge we have of God) is important. Richard A. Muller, in his Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics, Vol. 1, p. 229, explains:

“Beginning with Luther, the Reformation had a strong sense of the transcendence of God, indeed, the hiddenness of God in and behind his revelation. Drawing on this assumption, Calvin argued the accommodated nature of God’s revelation: God reveals himself not as he is in his infinite majesty but…

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